Annual household income was explored and categorized as $60 000

Annual household income was explored and categorized as $60 000

Almost every other covariates sensed integrated everyday supplement D and you may multi vitamin enhance play with, annual dentist see (annual or perhaps not), tooth-brushing regularity (twice daily or not), flossing frequency, many years and you may gender.

Data were accessed and analyzed at the Research Data Centre (RDC) at the University of Manitoba using SPSS 20 (IBM, Armonk, NY), SAS 9.2 (SAS, Cary, NC), and Stata 13 MP (StataCorp LP, College Station, Tex.). As per RDC restrictions, original sample sizes were suppressed. Bootstrap weights for variance estimation and weighted results are presented with degrees of freedom fixed to 11. Descriptive statistics include means and frequencies with 95% confidence intervals (CI). ? 2 tests were used to determine the unadjusted correlation of each categorical independent variable with GI and LOA. Student t tests were used to determine the unadjusted correlation of each continuous independent variable with GI and LOA. Three multiple logistic regression models for GI and for LOA were developed to determine the adjusted association between 25(OH)D levels and GI and LOA, controlling for potential confounders. Model A used 25(OH)D concentration of < 50 nmol/L, model B used 25(OH)D concentration < 75 nmol/L, and model C used mean 25(OH)D concentration. Variables with a p value of ? 0.075 were included in the multiple logistic regression analysis for GI and LOA, with the exception of plasma vitamin D concentration and known risk factors for periodontal disease, such as smoking. A p value ? 0.05 was significant.


The mean 25(OH)D concentrations (95% CI) in the GI and LOA samples were 90.8 (77.5–104.2) and 85.6 (74.6–97.2) nmol/L, respectively. Although mean 25(OH)D levels were above the thresholds for vitamin D sufficiency, 63% of each sample had concentrations below the 75 nmol/L threshold and 25% of each population had 25(OH)D levels < 50 nmol/L.

But not, whenever confounding parameters were regulated to have, multiple logistic regression research out-of GI (Desk dos) revealed that merely plaque and you may intercourse was basically notably in the GI

Bivariate analysis of GI (Table 1) [Ed. Note: All Tables in this article are available in the PDF version]. showed that several variables were significantly associated with 25(OH)D concentrations below the thresholds for vitamin D sufficiency. Participants with 25(OH)D concentrations < 50 nmol/L and < 75 nmol/L had significantly increased odds of having more GI (odds ratio (OR) 1.63 and 1.44, respectively). Those taking vitamin D supplements had significantly lower odds for GI (OR 0.56), while those with diabetes had increased odds of having moderate to severe GI (OR 1.33). Mean BMI was significantly higher among those with the worst GI. Meanwhile, those who reported frequenting a dental professional ? 1 time a year, brushing their teeth twice daily and flossing daily had significantly lower odds for GI. Increased scores for plaque were associated with increased odds for moderate to severe GI. Males had increased odds for GI compared with females, while those in higher-income categories had lower odds for GI than those in lower-income categories.

Females had all the way down odds of moderate to help you really serious GI, if you’re higher thinking on the plaque index increased chances of average so you’re able to major GI. No tall family relations anywhere between twenty-five(OH)D and GI was found in activities A good, B otherwise C about several logistic regression study off GI.

Multiple parameters were extreme about bivariate study regarding LOA (Desk step 3). Truth be told, providing an effective multivitamin otherwise a nutritional D enhance was on the improved likelihood of more serious LOA. Highest mean HbA1c thinking had been for the increased likelihood of way more severe LOA since was HbA1c > 7%. Earlier decades is actually of this improved likelihood of much more serious LOA, when you’re a full time income out-of > $sixty 000 was of the down odds of more serious LOA. Zero extreme association is actually found between twenty five(OH)D account and LOA throughout the bivariate data.

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